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Emirates Announces Multiple Job Opportunities in UAE Minimum Salary 4000 Dirhams Apply Online



Emirates Announces Multiple Job Opportunities in UAE Minimum Salary 4000 Dirhams Apply Online

Emirates Announces Multiple Job Opportunities in UAE Minimum Salary 4000 Dirhams Apply Online Emirates Group Careers in Dubai 2023 Airline Jobs: When you are looking for a Job in Dubai where you have a good salary and good benefits, then Emirates Group Careers will be the best choice.

Emirates Group is recruiting fresh and experienced candidates. You must have at least a higher secondary education to apply for Emirates Group Jobs. And if you want to apply for a driver’s or warehouse job, a high school education is enough.

People of different nationalities from all over the world are performing their duties and services in Emirates Group. Emirates Group is an international aviation holding company headquartered in Garhud, near Dubai International Airport. Emirates Airlines, Emirates SkyCargo, and Danata are subsidiaries of the Emirates Group. Data provides ground-handling services for Emirates Airlines at 126 airports around the world.

Emirates Group Job Details 2023

Employer Name Emirates Group
Job Location Dubai, UAE
Nationality Any Nationality
Education Equivalent Degree/Diploma Holders
Experience Mandatory
Salary Discuss During an Interview
Benefits As Per UAE Labor Law

Emirates Group Salary and Benefits

So when we take a look at Emirates Group Salary and Benefits, Every job at Emirates comes with an attractive benefits package and market-leading pay. The salary includes tax-free. Other benefits include,

  1. Alternative to cash or transport
  2. Medical and Life Insurance
  3. Support for education for children
  4. Annual leave
  5. Annual travel
  6. Benefits for the end of service
  7. Pension schemes
  8. Special discounts and promotions

Eligibility for Emirates Airlines Careers

As the details available Eligibility for Emirates Group Careers, People with a positive character, punctual, active, and team-oriented always have the top priority. Other qualifications for Emirates Careers are:

  • Arm reach of 212cm when standing on the tips of your toes
  • A minimum height of 160cm
  • Minimum High School graduate
  • Fluency in English
  • There are no visible tattoos when you’re wearing an Emirates uniform for cabin crew
  • Physically fit and with an ideal Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • The process of recruitment for the Emirates

How to Apply for Emirates Airline Jobs in Dubai?

It is reported that the Emirates Group is opening its job opportunities to those on the list above. Emirates is the most prominent corporate organization in the Middle East and offers world-class customer service in over sixty-one countries. For applications to Emirates Airlines jobs in Dubai, you will require access, to the website after registration on the official site.

If you are interested in applying for Emirates Airline Careers Candidates are able to submit their resume or CV to the official Emirates Group Careers website.

Emirates Group Job Vacancies in Dubai

Public Relations Manager UAE Apply Now
Cabin Services Assistant UAE Apply Now
Business Solutions Operations Officer UAE Apply Now
Business Solutions Operations Specialist UAE Apply Now
Financial Governance Manager UAE Apply Now
Senior Software Engineer – TPF/ALCS UAE Apply Now
Occupational Health Nurse UAE Apply Now
Sr. Software Engineer – Java (UAE Nationals) UAE Apply Now
Senior Software Engineer – Oracle ERP UAE Apply Now
Employee Assistance Specialist (UAE National) UAE Apply Now
Learning Systems Specialist (UAE National) UAE Apply Now
eLearning Specialist (UAE National) UAE Apply Now

Chane ka pulao Recipe in Urdu


Chane ka pulao Recipe in Urdu


1 Cardamom
1 Bay leaf
2 Clove
2 Cinnamon stick
2 Whole black pepper
1/2kg Basmati RIce
100 gm Kabuli chana
1/4 tsp White cumin
2 tbsp Clarified Butter
2 tbsp Onion Fried
to taste Salt

How To Make Kabuli Chana Pulao


Soak 100 grams Kabuli channa for 5 to 6 hours and boil. Soak 1/2 kg rice for half an hour and put on flame.

Then add chick peas, 2 tbsp clarified butter, 1/4 tsp white cumin, 1 bay leaf, few whole black peppers, 1 cardamom, few cinnamon sticks and few cloves and stir well.

Add water as required and cook until water dries up. You delicious Kabuli Chana Pulao is ready to serve.

Kabuli Chana Pulao vidhi

Chawal ……750g
Payaz ……1 cup
Ubly channy …3 cup
Dahi ……1-1/4
Tail ….3-1/4
Nemak ……as tast
Zeera ……1 Tea spoon
Shah Zeera …….1 Tea spoon
Adrak , lehson past ..1 table spoon
Bari alaichi dana …….Half Tea spoon
Dar cheeni…..2 to 3 sticks
Sabit hari mirch ……8 to 10 adad
Tamatar ……3 to 4adad
Kali mirch …..6 to 8 adad
Long …….6 to 8 adad
Hari alaichi ……4 to 5 adad
Tez pata ……..1 adad
Chiken cubes ……2 adad
Salad ……serving k liay
Raita ……serving k liay

Malai Chicken Cheese Kebab: Click Here

Banane ki tarkeeb

Aik pan main oil garam kr k payaz brown kr lain.
Sath hi garam masala aur zeera dal dain.
Ab is main adrak , lehson ka past, katy tamatar , hari mirch aur phenta hua dahi shamil kr k dhak kr itna pakain k oil alaida ho jay.
Pehly se ubly channy shamil kr kay mazeed 6 to 8 mints pakain.
Phr is main nemak aur chiken cubes dalain.
Akhir main bheegy huay chawal shamil kr kay thora sa pani dal kr pakain.
Jb pani khushk hony lagy to pan ko taway kay uper rakhain aur dam per chor dain.
Tayar hony per raita aur salad kay sath serve krain

چنا پلاؤ
چاول۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ سات سو پچاس گرام
پیاز۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک کپ
ابلے چنے۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ تین کپ
دہی۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک چوتھائی کپ
تیل۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ تین چوتھائی کپ
نمک۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ حسب ذوق
زیرہ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک چائے کا چمچ
شاہ زیرہ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک چائے کا چمچ
ادرک لہسن پیسٹ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک کھانے کا چمچ
بڑی الائچی دانہ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ آدھا چائے کا چمچ
دار چینی۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ دو سے تین اسٹکس
ثابت ہری مرچ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ آٹھ سے دس
ٹماٹر۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ تین سے چار
کالی مرچ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ چھ سے آٹھ
لونگ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ چھ سے آٹھ
ہری الائچی۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ چار سے پانچ
تیز پتہ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ ایک عدد
چکن کیوبز۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ دو عدد
سلاد۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ سرونگ کے لئے
رائتہ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ سرونگ کے لئے
ایک پین میں تیل کو گرم کر کے پیاز کو براؤن کر لیں۔
ساتھ ہی گرم مصالحہ اور زیرہ ڈال دیں۔
اب اس میں ادرک لہسن کا پیسٹ۔کٹے ٹماٹر،ثابت ہری مرچ اور پھینٹا ہوا دہی شامل کر کے ڈھک کر اتنا پکائیں کہ تیل علیحدہ ہو جائے۔
پہلے سے ابلے چنے شامل کر کے مزید چھ سےآٹھ منٹ پکائیں۔پھر اس میں نمک اور چکن کیوبز ڈالیں۔
آخر میں بھیگے ہوئے چاول شامل کر کے تھوڑا سا پانی ڈال کر پکائیں۔
جب پانی خشک ہونے لگے تو پین کو توے کے اوپر رکھیں اور دم پر چھوڑ دیں۔
تیار ہونے پر رائتہ اور سلاد کے ساتھ سرو کریں۔

Assignment Last Date Autumn 2022 AIOU

Assignment Last Date Autumn 2022 AIOU


B.Ed (1.5 Years) B.Ed (2.5 Years)
B.Ed (4 Years) ADE (2 Years)
Assignment No. Due Date
1st 20-02-2023
2nd 03-04-2023

Download Assignments Schedule









Assignment No. Due Date
1st 13-02-2023
2nd 03-04-2023

Assignment No. Due Date
1st 27-02-2023
2nd 10-04-2023


Note: –

For the workshop schedule, please log in to your LMS account or visit https://www.aiou.edu.pk/Workshops.asp. Your login credential will be sent to your provided contact number via SMS by AIOU.

Matric FA Assignment Last Date Autumn 2022 AIOU

Matric FA Assignments Schedule

مقررہ تاریخ 3کریڈٹ آورز


مقررہ تاریخ 6کریڈٹ آورز


05-12-2022 مشق نمبر1
31-12-2022 مشق نمبر1 31-12-2022 مشق نمبر2
25-01-2023 مشق نمبر3
25-02-2023 مشق نمبر2 25-02-2023 مشق نمبر4


Apple iPhone 14 Pro Max Price In Pakistan And Features

Apple iPhone 14 Pro Max Price In Pakistan And Features

Apple iPhone 14 Pro Max Price In Pakistan And Features At the end of the September 2022 event, Apple announced four new additions to the iPhone series. The iPhone 14 Pro and Pro Max, the iPhone 14, and more importantly, the iPhone 14 Plus, mark a surprising turn from the company – ditching the compact iPhone mini. In an unexpected move, Apple revamped the Plus Edition iPhone, making the Plus and iPhone 14 Pro Max equal in size. In Apple parlance, “Plus” usually refers to a larger battery and screen, such as with the iPhone 8 Plus. At the front, a notch separates the base and Pro iPhone 14.

Apple iPhone 14 Pro Max Price In Pakistan And Features With the notch removed, the spotlight feature of this year’s Pro iPhone lineup is the “Dynamic Island.” It hides the annoying dual-hole cutout on the screen with a stylized notification tray based on the UI. Without leaving the app, it lets the user interact with sticky notifications, such as a voice recorder, timer, and music player, giving the iPhone a whole new set of features. This year, Apple is adding an always-on display option to Ink Pro screens. Both are Super Retina XDR OLED constructions with scratch-resistant ceramic glass + oleophobic coating protection. Moreover, the Pro (6.1-inch) and Pro Max (6.7-inch) screens are “LTPO” 120Hz. It’s the same technology Samsung uses with its phones to scale the refresh rate up or down, depending on usage, saving some battery life.

Build OS IOS 16  
Dimensions 147.5 x 71.5 x 7.9 mm
Weight 206 g
SIM Dual Sim, Dual Standby (Nano-SIM)
Colors Graphite; other colors
Frequency 2G Band SIM1: GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
SIM2: GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900
3G Band HSDPA 850 / 900 / 1700(AWS) / 1900 / 2100
4G Band LTE
5G Band SA/NSA/Sub6
Processor CPU 3.22 Ghz Hexa Core
Chipset Apple A16 Bionic (4 nm)
GPU Apple GPU (5-core graphics)
Display Technology LTPO Super Retina XDR OLED Capacitive Touchscreen, Multitouch
Size 6.1 Inches
Resolution 1179 x 2556 Pixels (~461 PPI)
Protection Ion-strengthened glass, oleophobic coating
Extra Features Always-On display, 120Hz, HDR10, Dolby Vision, 1000 nits (type), 2000 nits (HBM)
Memory Built-in 128/256/512GB, 1TB Built-in, 6GB RAM, NVMe
Card No
Camera Main Quad Camera: 48 MP, f/1.8, 24mm (wide), dual pixel PDAF, sensor-shift OIS + 12 MP, f/2.8, 77mm (telephoto), PDAF, OIS, 3x optical zoom + 12 MP, f/2.2, 13mm, (ultrawide), dual pixel PDAF + TOF 3D LiDAR scanner (depth), LED flash (adaptive)
Features HDR (photo/panorama), Video (4K@24/25/30/60fps, 1080p@25/30/60/120/240fps, 10-bit HDR, Dolby Vision HDR (up to 60fps), ProRes, Cinematic mode (4K@30fps), stereo sound rec.)
Front Dual Camera: 12 MP, f/2.2, 23mm (wide), 1/3.6″ + SL 3D, (depth/biometrics sensor), HDR, Cinematic mode (4K@30fps), Video (4K@24/25/30/60fps, 1080p@25/30/60/120fps, gyro-EIS)
Connectivity WLAN Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac/6, dual-band, hotspot
Bluetooth v5.3 with A2DP, LE
USB Lightning, USB 2.0
Data GPRS, Edge, 3G (HSPA 42.2/5.76 Mbps), 4G LTE-A, 5G capable, EV-DO Rev.A 3.1 Mbps
Features Sensors Accelerometer, Barometer, Compass, Face ID, Gyro, Proximity, Ultra Wideband (UWB) support
Audio Lightning to 3.5 mm headphone jack adapter, MP3/WAV/AAX+/AIFF/Apple Lossless player, MP4/H.264 player, Speaker Phone
Browser Yes
Messaging iMessage, SMS (threaded view), MMS, Email, Push Email
Games Built-in + Downloadable
Torch Yes
Extra Emergency SOS via satellite (SMS sending/receiving), Glass front + Gorilla Glass), Glass back + Gorilla Glass), IP68 dust/water resistant (up to 6m for 30 mins), Apple Pay (Visa, MasterCard, AMEX certified), Document editor
Battery Capacity Li-ion Nonremovable
– Fast charging, 50% in 30 min (advertised), USB Power Delivery 2.0, MagSafe wireless charging 15W, Qi magnetic fast wireless charging 7.5W


Price Price in Rs: (Expected Rs: 279,999)   Price in USD: $999


The screen brightness can reach 2000 nits, the highest ever recorded on a smartphone. The long-suspected 48MP primary camera on the Pros has now been officially confirmed by the authorities. By combining Apple’s new photonic engine with a 65 percent larger sensor, the cameras will improve low-light performance by up to 49 percent. The front-facing True Depth sensor boosts the selfie cam by 38% in low-light quality. Apple Inc has introduced four new skin colors for the 14 Pro and Pro Max. On top of that, the tech giant is bringing its new A16 Bionic silicon to the Pro models. As for the latest iPhone pricing and availability, the 14 Pro starts at USD 999, while the 14 Pro Max starts at USD 1099.

Pre-orders will go live on September 9th, and by the 16th, both will be available. Purchases in specific areas of the company. Here are some of the new and improved features added to the iPhone 14 lineup. Emergency SOS via satellite, the holy grail of connectivity. Mag Safe, Photonic Engine, and Action Mode. Accident detection, where the iPhone uses sensors, cameras, and mics to sense if the user has been involved in an accident and takes action accordingly. All iPhone 14 feature 5G, HDR10 screens, and IP68 dust and water protection.

AIOU Fee Structure 2022

AIOU Fee Structure 2022

AIOU Fee Structure 2022 Allama Iqbal Open University has officially announced the AIOU Fee Structure for the year 2022, those students who want to find out the complete details of the AIOU Admission Fee for the First Semester and Spring and Autumn Courses, then Fees and others Stay tuned to this page for essential information.

Admission and Semester for different subjects. Many students want to get admission to the university and their first priority is to check all the information related to the specific courses through the internet and the official website of aiou.

Apply For Admission Online: Click Here

Students of Matric, FA, ICOM, DCOM, BA, BCOM, BSc, BCS and MA, MCOM, MSc, and MPhil, Have passed the certificate and want to take admitted to the next program they can check all fee structures and application process checks all details below.

AIOU Fee Structure BS Programmes (Face to Face) Semester Fee
Botany 41000
Computer Science 39000
Environmental Science 40500
Physics 40000
Chemistry 40000
Mathematics 36750
Statistics 36750
  AIOU Fee Structure BS Programmes (ODL)
Accounting & Finance 14600
Pakistan Studies 14600
Urdu 14600
Gender & Women Studies 14600
Arabic 14600
English 14600
Library and Information Sciences 12500
Islamic Studies General 14600
Islamic Studies Quran and Tafseer 14600
Islamic Studies Shariah 14600
Islamic Studies Hadith & Hadith Science 14600
Islamic Studies Seerat Studies 14600
Islamic Studies Dars-e-Nizami 14600
Islamic Studies Interfaith Studies 14600
AIOU Fee Structure BBA Programme (4 Years)
Bachelor of Business Administration 12500
AIOU Fee Structure Teacher Training Programmes
Associate Degree in Education (2 Years) 21800
BEd (1-1/2 Years) 21800
BEd (2-1/2 Years) Science Education 21800
BEd (2-1/2 Years) Elementary Teacher Education 21800
BEd (4 Years) Science Education (FSc/A level Based) 21800
BEd (4 Years) Science Education (ADE Based) 21800
BEd (4 Years) Secondary Teacher Edu. (FA/FSc/A level Based) 21800
BEd (4 Years) Secondary Teacher Edu. (ADE Based) 21800
BEd (4 Years) School Leadership & Management 21800
BEd (4 Years) ETE (FA/FSc/A level Based) 21800
BEd (4 Years) ETE (ADE 2-Years Based) 21800
AIOU Fee Structure Post Graduate Diplomas
Supply Chain Management 21500
Human Resource Management 21500
Environmental Health & Safety 24500
Entrepreneurship 21500
Gender & Women Studies 11000
AIOU Fee Structure Associate Degree Programmes
BA Associate Degree in Arts 4400
Associate Degree in Commerce (B.Com) 4400
Associate Degree in Business Administration with Specializations 12500
i. Islamic Banking 12500
ii. HRM 12500
iii. Marketing 12500
AIOU Fee Structure Certificate Courses (6 Months)
Lughat ul Quran 3000
Al Lisanul Arabi 3000
Arabi Bol Chall 3000
Certificate in Librarianship 3900
French Language Course 3600
Certificate in Literacy & Non-Formal Education 3000
Certificate Courses in Public Health 7200
AIOU Fee Structure E-Commerce Skills & Online Courses
Virtual Assistant (Wholesale) Amazon 6700
Virtual Assistant (Private Label) Amazon 6700
Virtual Store Manager – Daraz 6700
Virtual Trader – Alibaba 6700
Shopify Drop Shipping 6700
Facebook Executive Marketing 6700

MDCAT Student Guide Book 2022


MDCAT Student Guide Book 2022

MDCAT Student Guide Book 2022 The Medical and Dental College Admission Test (MDCAT) is conducted annually by Pakistan Medical Commission as the national entrance test for Medical and Dental Colleges in Pakistan.

Exam Schedule for MDCAT 2022:

Candidate Schedule
Local & International 7th– 30th September 2022


The exam will be conducted at 21 different locations nationally and in 9 locations Internationally.

National Venues

Lahore Sialkot Khairpur Abbottabad
Multan Sahiwal Karachi DI Khan
Faisalabad Islamabad Hyderabad Peshawar
Gujranwala Quetta Nawab shah Swat/Malakand
DG Khan Muzaffarabad Mirpur (AJK)
Bahawalpur Gilgit


International Venues

Saudi Arabia UAE Qatar
Canada USA UK
Oman Bahrain Australia


Read Also: Punjab University PU MA MSc Date Sheet 2022 Part 1 And 2

Eligibility criteria:

  1. Any person (Pakistani/Overseas Pakistani/Foreign National) shall be eligible to register for and attempt the MDCAT examination
  2. FSC/HSSC/A level result/degree IS NOT required for MDCAT 2022
  3. A candidate is permitted to take the MDCAT exam only once in each calendar

Structure, Standards & Setting of MDCAT Paper:

  • The MDCAT exam will be a multiple-choice, computer-based exam conducted in the English language
  • It will consist of 200 MCQs according to the following weightage:
Subject No: of MCQs
Biology 68
Chemistry 54
Physics 54
English 18
Logical reasoning 6
Total 200


Difficulty level
Easy 20%
Moderate 60%
Hard 20%
Cognition level
Recall 70%
Application 30%


  • The exam duration will be 3 and 30 mins
  • The difficulty and cognition level will be maintained in all papers

Passing criteria:

  • 65% (130 out of 200) for admission into Medical Colleges
  • 55% (110 out of 200) for admission into Dental Colleges

For students who took the exam in 2021 and want to use their 2021 results for admissions in 2022-23, the equivalence score calculator will be available on the PMC website.

Tutorial, Mock & Practice tests:

As part of the student registration fee, a free online Mock Test and tutorial on how to take the exam will be shared with the students in August 2022. This Mock Test will be based on a Mock Test Question-Bank which will give students an understanding of the level of questions expected in the actual exam based on the Final MDCAT Question-Bank.

Students will be able to take multiple Mock Tests for practice.


Exam Scheduling by Students 8th Aug – 17th Aug
Issuance of roll number slips 18th Aug – 25th Aug


Registration & Scheduling Pre-Exam:

  1. Any person found to have given wrong information during registration will have their registration
  2. All candidates have been scheduled for the Exam system based on their selection of 1st or 2nd choice of centers and based on First Come – First Serve basis determined from the date of clearance If the capacity of a center is filled students have been scheduled by the system to the next choice of center or the next closest center geographically.
  3. Further to successful registration candidates may log on to their PMC Exams Account where they can see their scheduled date and center as done by the
  4. A candidate can during the Scheduling Window between 8th August and 17th August 2022 change their date or both date and center to any of their choice subject to availability of space as per the schedule calendar visible to
  5. After the close of the Scheduling Window Roll, Number slips shall be issued from 18th August 2022 to 25th August 2022 to all candidates as per the final scheduling

Policy for Rescheduling during exams:

  1. Only cases of major emergencies such as medical emergencies, accidents, natural disasters, and issues of MDCAT exam dates conflict with any other exam will be considered valid for rescheduling &
  2. Rescheduling will be solely based on the availability of a future date and not an absolute right in the event of a candidate being absent from their scheduled exam

SOP for Rescheduling During Exam:

  1. From 6th September 2022, the scheduling option will open again, and Candidates can directly reschedule their exam in the event of an emergency or health
  2. Subject to availability of space, a Candidate can reschedule their exam only during the 72 hours / 3 days window prior to the date on which their exam is originally scheduled OR within 24 hours / 1 day of having been absent from their scheduled

In case of unavailability of space:

  1. In the event of a major emergency requiring a rescheduling and no future dates being available at any center in the same province, the candidate may apply to the Authority at the Complaint Management System (https://cmspmc.com/registerComplaint.aspx) for an Emergency
  2. The Authority in its absolute discretion after ascertaining the emergency declared and the supporting evidence provided may reschedule the candidate if space is available at any of the centers in any future The candidate shall have no right to claim an Emergency Rescheduling and can only apply for one.

Refund Policy:

Refund is applicable only in the case of dual payments after 4th August 2022.

Exam Conduct:

  1. Candidate must ensure to reach the test center as per the time and date mentioned on his/her roll no In case of more than 30 minutes late arrival (Due to an extreme emergency), the candidate will not be allowed to sit in the exam.
  2. Mandatory Requirement: Please bring your original identity document (CNIC/ Passport/ POR /B form/NICOP) plus a Hard copy of the COVID Vaccination certificate to the exam No student will be allowed to sit in the exam without identity verification with corresponding original documents and a COVID Vaccination certificate.
  3. Students will have to follow NCOC COIVID guidelines as
  4. Any candidate found to have provided a forged identity or false information shall have his registration canceled by the Authority and such person shall be debarred from taking the MDCAT on a permanent
  5. Candidates will not be allowed to take any paper, pencil, mobile phone, electronic device, food, drink, or any other objectional item other than the printed roll number slip into the Examination Hall. Medication based on prescription shall be allowed. Water / Juice shall be provided in the Examination
  6. The examination staff shall have the right to conduct a search of the person prior to entering the examination
  7. A person found to be talking during the exam or having brought in any banned item shall be immediately disqualified and their examination shall be canceled, and such person shall be debarred from taking the MDCAT for two further consecutive
  8. Candidates can only leave the hall after having completed their
  9. No candidate will be allowed to re-enter the hall once they
  10. In the case of a serious medical emergency if a candidate has opted to start the exam it will at the discretion of the Head Invigilator to cancel their exam attempt and allow them to be rescheduled or to count their exam as already

Exam App:

  1. Candidates will log in to the exam application through their roll numbers, and a verification code (unique code provided at the center to each student)
  2. One question at a time will be available on the screen and they can answer the question by clicking one of the
  3. Candidates can Skip any Question without answering it by clicking on the Skip
  4. Candidate can change their answer as many times as they want before the submission of their
  5. At the top of the screen there will be 4 option bars available namely;
    1. Attempted Questions
    2. Skipped Questions
    3. Unattempted (Remaining) Questions
    4. Flagged Questions
  1. Candidates can submit the exam after completion at any time by clicking “End Exam”. The candidate will see a confirmatory Popup on the screen before the final Submission of the
  2. Once the exam is submitted it cannot be restarted
  3. Candidates can only leave the hall after having submitted their

Post exam SOP:

Result announcement

  1. The result will be announced on 7th October 2022 which shall be made available on the PMC Student Online
  2. The result of the MDCAT exam as communicated and issued shall be

Exam Review Process (in case required)

  1. Exam review solely pertaining to the re-totaling of the MDCAT score will be
  2. The window for the review applications will be opened right after the announcement of the
  3. Candidates on payment of the prescribed fee will be provided with the option of review (scoring of their MDCAT exam).

Submission of result for Admission

  1. After the announcement of the MDCAT result, candidates will have the provision of forwarding their results from their MDCAT portal to the relevant medical or dental
  2. Those candidates who will opt for the option of review will be able to share the updated result with the university (if applicable) after the announcement of the review

Validity of MDCAT Result:

A candidate’s MDCAT result shall be valid for a period of two years from the date of the exam.

If a person retakes the MDCAT exam during this period, the person may use the highest attained result to apply to a medical or dental college.

Policy for absenteeism from exam/Rescheduling of the exam:

  1. Only cases of major emergencies such as medical emergencies, accidents, natural disasters, and issues of MDCAT exam dates conflict with any other exam will be considered valid for
  2. Rescheduling will be solely based on the availability of a future date and not an absolute right in the event of a candidate being absent from their scheduled exam

Sargodha University BA BSc BCom ADP Date Sheet 2022


Sargodha University BA BSc BCom ADP Date Sheet 2022 BA / BSc / B.Com-II (Only)  Associate Degree in Arts/Science/Commerce Part I, II First Annual Examination 2022. The candidates must keep their ORIGINAL COMPUTERIZED NATIONAL IDENTITY CARDS, Roll No. Slips, wear masks and follow all SOPs notified by Govt. of Punjab regarding COV1D-19 during the course of examination failing which they would not be allowed to take.

Download Rollnumber Slip

Practical Examination
Time: Morning: 09:00 am & afternoon: 02:00 pm
Schedule of Practical Exam / Viva Voce for BA/B.Sc. & Associate Degree in Arts / Science /Commerce
Part-I & II, First Annual Examination 2022 to be Held in August-September & October 2022


  1. Roll Number slips of regular students will be dispatched to the Principals of their respective colleges whereas private candidates will download their Combined Roll Number slips (Theory + Practical) from the University of Sargodha website http://annual.su.edu.pk/Examination/RollNoSlip/RollNoSlips.
  2. Roll Number slips of Private candidates will not be dispatched to their postal addresses. No separate Roll Number slips will be issued for the Practical Examination.
  1. In the subjects of English Language Compulsory (BAJADA& BSc/ADS) Islamic Studies (Compulsory) and Pakistan Studies (Compulsory), there will be two groups i.e. Group I & II.
  2. The duration of the English Paper A (BA) will be 3 1/2 hours, Islamic Studies / Ethics Compulsory 2 hours, and Pakistan Studies Compulsory 1 1/2 hours while the duration of all other papers will be 3 hours.
  3. A clash of subjects (if any) is required to be informed to the Admin. Officer (BA/B.Sc Sec.) at cell no. 0301- 4342640 till 29.06.2022 during office hours.

Sargodha University BA BSc BCom ADP Date Sheet 2022 Important Instructions for the Candidates,

  1. Roll No. should be written on the right of the title page of the answer book only and not on any other Answer book number should also not be mentioned inside the answer book.
  2. Marks of identification should not be made anywhere in the answer book or on the title page.
  3. Do not bring material relevant to the syllabus before entering into the Examination Hall.
  4. Do not make an appeal to the Examiner in the answer book.
  5. Do not use abusive or obscene language in the answer book.
  6. Do not disobey Center Superintendent, change your Roll No / Seat with another candidate,
  7. Create disturbance, stage walkout, resort to pen down strike or instigate others to do so, or otherwise misbehaves in or around the Examination Hall.
  8. Do not bring firearms or anything capable of being used as a weapon of offense in or around Examination Hall.
  9. No one is allowed to leave the Examination Hall before the first hour is over. If anyone leaves after one hour or before half the time is over, he/she shall not be allowed to take away the Question Paper.
  10. Unauthorized change of center is strictly prohibited. If anyone changes his/ her center of examination on his/ her own, unfair means case will be registered against him/her, similarly, no change of subject is allowed unless permitted by the University.
  11. No one can appear in the Examination without getting his/her Roll Number Slip. An unfair-means case shall be registered against those who will violate the instructions and rules/regulations of the
  12. The candidates are not allowed to bring/use mini-computer, smartwatch, calculator,s and mobile telephone sets in the Examination Hall. Unfair Means Case shall be registered against those who violate the above or such other instructions as are issued.

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Intermediate Date Sheet 2022


Intermediate Date Sheet 2022 Intermediate 12th Class Date Sheet 2022 2nd Year Date Sheet is available on Diya.pk. Here you will find the BISE FSC date sheet for 12th class 2022, BISE FA 12th Class date sheet 2022, and BISE ICS 12th Class date sheet 2022. 2nd Year date sheet of BISE is given below in detail. The morning paper will start at 8:30 AM. The evening paper will start at 1:30 PM but on Friday evening paper will start at 2:30 PM. Check all Boards Intermediate 12th Class Date Sheet 2022.

Download Date Sheet


Subjects Paper Subjects Paper
June 2022
Saturday Psychology II Geography II
20-06-2022 Monday English (Compulsory) (First Group) II English (Compulsory) (Second Group) II
21-06-2022 Tuesday Economics II Sociology II
22-06-2022 Wednesday 1.Chemistry (First Group) 2.Library Science II 1.Chemistry (Second Group) 2.Statistics II
23-06-2022 Thursday 1. Civics 2. Banking (Commerce Group) II Philosophy II
24-06-2022 Friday Computer Science II 1.   History (All Options)

2.   Food and Nutrition

(Home Economics Group) (Time 2:30 p.m)

25-06-2022 Saturday 1. Education (First Group)

2. Computer Studies

(Commerce Group)

II 1.  Education (Second Group)

2.  Applied Art (Home Economics Group)

27-06-2022 Monday Commercial Geography (Commerce Group) II Outlines of Home Economics II
28-06-2022 Tuesday 1. Mathematics (First Group)

2. Biology (First Group)

II 1.   Mathematics (Second Group)

2.   Biology (Second Group)

3.   Nursing

4.   Fine Arts (Theory)

29-06-2022 Wednesday 1.  Islamic Studies (Elective) (First Group)

2.  Principles of Accounting

(Commerce Group)

II Islamic Studies (Elective) (Second Group) II
30-06-2022 Thursday 1. Physics (First Group) 2. Health & Physical Education II Physics (Second Group) II
July 2022
Friday 1. Punjabi           2. Arabic

3.   Business Statistics (Commerce Group)

II 1.   Persian

2.   Urdu Advanced

3.   English (Elective)

4.   Child Development and Family living (Home Economics Group)

(Time 2:30 p.m)

02-07-2022 Saturday Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) (First Group)

(Time 8:30 a.m to 10:30 a.m)

II Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) (Second Group)

(Time 1:30 p.m to 03:30 p.m)

04-07-2022 Monday Urdu (Compulsory)    (First Group) II 1.   Urdu (Compulsory) (Second Group)

2.   Pakistani Culture




Subjects Paper Subjects Paper
July 2022
Wednesday Psychology I 1.  Geography (Old Course)

2.  Geography (New Course)

07-07-2022 Thursday 1.   Chemistry (First Group)

2.   Library Science

I 1.   Chemistry (Second Group)

2.   Chemistry (Home Economics Group)

3.   Statistics

08-07-2022 Friday History (All Options) I Outlines of Home Economics (Time 2:30 p.m) I
14-07-2022 Thursday 1.       Islamic Studies (Elective) (First Group)

2.       Principles of Accounting (Commerce Group)

I Islamic Studies (Elective)(Second Group) I
15-07-2022 Friday 1.   Mathematics (First Group)

2.   Biology (First Group)

I 1.   Mathematics (Second Group)

2.   Biology (Second Group)

3.   Biology (Home Economics Group)

4.   Nursing

(Time 2:30 p.m)

16-07-2022 Saturday 1.   Civics

2.   Business Mathematics (Commerce Group)

I 1.   Fine Arts (Theory)

2.   Clothing and Textile

(Home Economics Group)

18-07-2022 Monday English (Compulsory)(First Group) I English (Compulsory) (Second Group) I
19-07-2022 Tuesday Computer Science I Philosophy I
20-07-2022 Wednesday 1.   Punjabi

2.   Arabic

3.   Principles of Commerce (Commerce Group)

I 1.   Persian

2.   English (Elective)

3.   Urdu (Advanced)

21-07-2022 Thursday 1.   Physics (First Group)

2.   Health & Physical Education

I 1.  Physics (Second Group)

2.  Home Management

(Home Economics Group)

22-07-2022 Friday 1.   Education (First Group)

2.   Principles of Economics (Commerce Group)

I Education (Second Group) (Time 2:30 p.m) I
23-07-2022 Saturday Economics I Sociology I
25-07-2022 Monday Urdu (Compulsory) (First Group) I 1.   Urdu (Compulsory) (Second Group)

2.   Pakistani Culture

26-07-2022 Tuesday Islamic Education (Compulsory) (First Group)

(Time 8:30 a.m to 10:30 a.m)

I 1.   Islamic Education (Compulsory)

(Second Group)

2.   Civics (Compulsory) (For Non-Muslims)

3.   Ethics

(Time 1:30 p.m to 03:30 p.m)




Time: First Batch: 8:30 a.m to 11:30 a.m Second Batch:1:00 p.m to 04:00 p.m (On Friday the Second Batch will start at 2.30 p.m

Physics 29-07-2022 Friday 1. Nursing 29-07-2022 Friday
30-07-2022 Saturday
01-08-2022 Monday Geography 30-07-2022 Saturday
02-08-2022 Tuesday 01-08-2022 Monday
03-08-2022 Wednesday Computer Studies (Commerce Group) 29-07-2022 Friday
04-08-2022 Thursday 30-07-2022 Saturday
05-08-2022 Friday 01-08-2022 Monday
06-08-2022 Saturday Psychology 29-07-2022 Friday
10-08-2022 Wednesday 30-07-2022 Saturday
11-08-2022 Thursday 01-08-2022 Monday
12-08-2022 Friday 02-08-2022 Tuesday
13-08-2022 Saturday 03-08-2022 Wednesday
15-08-2022 Monday Library Science 04-08-2022 Thursday
16-08-2022 Tuesday 05-08-2022 Friday
Wednesday 06-08-2022 Saturday
Thursday Health & Physical Education 10-08-2022 Wednesday
11-08-2022 Thursday
12-08-2022 Friday
13-08-2022 Saturday
15-08-2022 Monday
16-08-2022 Tuesday
Chemistry 30-07-2022 Saturday Out Lines of Home Economics 17-08-2022 Wednesday
01-08-2022 Monday 18-08-2022 Thursday
02-08-2022 Tuesday 19-08-2022 Friday
03-08-2022 Wednesday 20-08-2022 Saturday
04-08-2022 Thursday 22-08-2022 Monday
05-08-2022 Friday Statistics 23-08-2022 Tuesday
06-08-2022 Saturday 24-08-2022 Wednesday
10-08-2022 Wednesday 25-08-2022 Thursday
11-08-2022 Thursday 26-08-2022 Friday
12-08-2022 Friday 27-08-2022 Saturday
13-08-2022 Saturday 1. Fine Arts (Design) 29-08-2022 Monday
15-08-2022 Monday 2. Applied Art (Home Economics Group) 30-08-2022 Tuesday
16-08-2022 Tuesday
17-08-2022 Wednesday
18-08-2022 Thursday
19-08-2022 Friday
1.Biology 20-08-2022 Saturday 1.  Fine Arts (Figure Composition) 31-08-2022 Wednesday
2.Computer 22-08-2022 Monday 2.  Food & Nutrition (Home Economics Group) 01-09-2022 Thursday
Science 23-08-2022 Tuesday
24-08-2022 Wednesday 1.  Fine Arts Still life &(Exhibition of work) 02-09-2022 Friday
25-08-2022 Thursday 2.  Child Development & Family Living 03-09-2022 Saturday
26-08-2022 Friday (Home Economics Group)
27-08-2022 Saturday
29-08-2022 Monday
30-08-2022 Tuesday
31-08-2022 Wednesday
01-09-2022 Thursday

Compare different modes applicable to the universities


Compare different modes applicable to the universities

Compare different modes applicable to the universities. Which model do you think is most appropriate for Pakistan and why?          

Education is the soul of an individual and a nation; it is the beacon that allows the nations to find the way to the future. Philosophy of education deals with the problems of our education system through a multi-disciplinary approach concerned with its concepts, aims, methods, and results.

Our Education System is a legacy of our colonial masters. We have failed to update it with respect to the changing times. What education we are giving to our own children today, is an antithesis of Plato’s Education Philosophy of Idealism described in his vision of an ideal Republic; which advocates about an individual who is subservient to a just society. Should the child be raised by the state as advocated by Plato(away from parents)? This question has been answered differently by Utopian scholars, ideologies, and civilizations. Irrespective of the way the child is brought up in various civilizations, the aim of education is to create social change; produce citizens for the civil society, and provide opportunities to all social classes for the growth of individuals and communities. Pakistan is a Republic but the aim of education is not clear. Ironically, developing a national aim of education is not the agenda of our lawmakers; not even the reform-oriented political parties have declared any concrete policy on education. The surveys of schools conducted in rural Sind and Punjab in the 1990s revealed that 60 percent of our schools in our rural areas are not functioning. The number of people who can write their names is only 52 percent in Pakistan, the unofficial literacy level is much lower. If we have a national debate on the question does nature or nurture is responsible for our underdevelopment? the majority will favor the concept of Fatalism(a philosophical doctrine emphasizing the subjugation of all events or actions to fate). Under these circumstances, we cannot discuss the Philosophy of Kant or Hegel in Pakistan. It is no surprise that Pakistan became the breeding ground of fanatic religious ideologies supported by brotherly countries since 1979.

Islam is one of the majestic religions of the world which emphasized on its followers to get educated; Islam declared knowledge as light and its absence as darkness. The Holy Book Al-Quran is a living miracle of our beloved Prophet Rehmat-ul-Alameen Muhammad(Peace be Upon him). Quran is a treasure of knowledge and guidance for the people till the day of judgment. It completed the religion of Allah initially delivered piecemeal by the Prophets in different times and places. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) created a welfare state/civil society in Madina for 12 years. Sociologists believe that women’s rights are the key to the civilization of change and progress. He(PBUH) gave the rights of emancipation (the right to marry, get an education, adopt a career, get inheritance and choose divorce at will) to women in the 7th century, which were given to European women after the 1850s. The international scholars acclaim him as the greatest leader of mankind who brought an unimaginable social change in the world’s most uneducated and uncivilized society of the world-Arabia in the 7th century. The Muslims emerged as a world power from the 7th to the 17th Century A.D. However, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is ranked just above the Least Developed Countries(LDCs) in the Human Development Index of the world. It is ironic that Islam provided all the recipes of national development, nevertheless, we are moving on the way of darkness; we are infected with all the social evils for which different communities were punished by Allah for disobedience as narrated in the Quran. I have yet to see any demonstration by religious parties in Pakistan on our illiteracy or lack of intellectualism. Our Holy Prophet(PBUH), his Ahl-e-Bait, and his sincere companions gave us the gift of knowledge to change, why are we following the path of darkness? If utilitarianism can be achieved by other civilizations of the world, then why not the people of Pakistan get a scholastic solution to their problems.

I listened to different TV anchors who in their talk shows emphasize the formation of National Policies on Economics, Defense, Foreign Policy, etc. No doubt they are important but education is the key to development. According to UNDP, investment in education provides a long-term profit of @16 percent. Low literacy rates are one of the reasons for poor economic growth in India despite having democracy for 65 years. Contrary, huge investment in human development and technical education by autocratic China produced one of the strongest sustainable growth in human history. The economic growth of brother Islamic Republics/countries of Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Malaysia, and Indonesia is correlated with their accomplishments in education. Why are we afraid of the knowledge and development of our people? Literate and educated Pakistan has a higher probability to defeat the non-democratic forces than the existing web of poverty, deprivation, and darkness. John Dewey(1859-1952) believed in the strong relationship of education with democracy. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of Pragmatism(philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory) and one of the founders of Functional Psychology(general psychological philosophy that considers mental life and behavior in terms of active adaptation to the person’s environment). He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism.

From the perceptive of parents, education should augment their family income and social standing in society.   The structure of our education provides 14 years of education to a child with no guarantee of employment. As Pakistan is passing through its worst economic growth under a democratic government, our education should focus on technical education and entrepreneurship training for our students. The lack of economic independence of our male graduates reduces matrimony, sustainable marriages, and other social evils in our society. Informal education with NGO’s support is possible.

The weak relationship of Primary/Secondary education with Higher education reduces its linkage with national economic growth as experienced in Sri Lanka. Higher education got a fillip in Pakistan from 2000 to 2007, under military rule. Higher Education Commission created by Mr. Atta-ur-Rehamn and his team gave us hope that Pakistan has a futuristic vision; the weaknesses in the national economic and human development had a ray of hope that the young generation is moving in the right direction. The students were selected on merit for foreign scholarships in the technologies of the future. The local universities were expanding and improving to accommodate the young scholars returning back from their studies. But the discontinuation of these great initiatives by the People’s Government in the last 5 years has increased the fears of failures of the state. It has amplified despair in society.

How Socio-economic development of a country depends upon higher education


How Socio-economic development of a country depends upon higher education

Q.1 How Socio-economic development of a country depends upon higher education? Is higher education in Pakistan playing its role effectively? How or why not?

The twentieth century witnessed major growth in the provision of educational opportunities across the globe, which is a good thing. Landmark multinational agreements such as the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights and the more recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) put forward a right for all children to be educated

There are many reasons to believe that increased educational opportunity and achievement lead to social progress. The aim of this chapter is to examine how can educatıon promote social progress.

Answering this question is not straightforward. Education has multiple aims, and the way in which education is provided – educational governance, educational institutions and educators, curriculum, and pedagogy – all matter a great deal. We will cover each of these topics in this chapter, looking at trends across the globe and seeking to ascertain what scholars know about better and worse forms of educational provision.

To understand the connection between education and social progress, we must first distinguish among four distinct aims of education: economic, civic, humanistic, and equity promotion

Current conditions and challenge

In this section, we present a broad view of education in the world today, showing how formal education has expanded in the last decades and emphasizing how it relates to citizenship, growing opportunities for social mobility, economic development, and equity. We take stock of what has been achieved and is still to be done to improve access to quality education in the poorer parts of the word, through the Sustainable Developed Goals fostered by the global community, which is mostly concerned with initial and mandatory education; and take a closer look at the special roles played by vocational and tertiary education. Each of these dimensions is subject to controversies, which we try to take into account while emphasizing the overall positive effects of education for social progress.

Education and social progress

Culture, “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits” (Tylor 1870) is the most distinctive element of human societies, and in its broadest sense education is the process of facilitating learning or the acquisition of culture. Education takes place informally, starting with the interaction of children with their parents and relatives, but becomes to a large extent formal in complex societies, as it is codified (in primers, manuals, catechisms, handbooks) and provided by specialized institutions (churches, schools, universities, professional guilds, academies) according to specific methods (lecturing, memorization, demonstration, interpretation, collaboration, practice, experimentation).

Expansion and increased access

In the last century, and especially after World War II, access to formal education expanded dramatically. In the same period, governments shifted their priorities from education for citizenship to education for productivity, with great consequence.

National examples, there is the interesting and promising Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning Project, a field experiment conducted between 1994 and 2003 in the isolated and impoverished northern region of Ghana. As the Matlab experiment in Bangladesh showed a decade earlier, the Navrongo study showed that even under conditions of extreme poverty and depressed living standards, demand for fertility limitation could be identified and satisfied by appropriately designed services (Phillips et al. 2006). Fertility was reduced by 15 percent in the program areas, whereas it remained essentially unchanged in the control areas.

Kenya, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Rwanda, and the Navrongo project, have all demonstrated that population policies and reproductive health programs can work in Africa. What is needed now is for African leaders to understand this and also to believe that effective fertility control programs need to become essential elements of the economic development strategies they design and implement in their countries. Effective family planning is as essential to the future success of Ghana, Cote D’Ivoire, and Mozambique as it was for Korea, Thailand, and Indonesia.

In June 2007, when Gordon Brown succeeded Tony Blair as Prime Minister, he immediately quoted his school motto (“I will do my utmost”), thereby showing his commitment to education. This was one of the key policies of New Labour governments and can be more systematically analyzed as the Brown years are now over. We will thus explore education policies in England from 1997 to 2010, laying the emphasis on Gordon Brown’s role in his successive positions. His commitment to education was apparent in setting funding levels as Chancellor of the Exchequer, but also in March 2007, when he announced the school leaving age would be raised, and as Prime Minister, with the decision to split the Department for Education and Skills in June 2007. We will first focus on New Labour’s education policy from 1997 to 2010, particularly on the continuity in its tenets and on government funding. We will then analyze specific elements such as standards, the intervention of the private sector, social mobility, and efforts to improve the employability of English youths.

New Labour’s Education Policies from 1997 to 2010

Everyone will remember the famous New Labour slogan “Education, education, education.” When he became Prime Minister, Gordon Brown carried this commitment further, by splitting the education department. The remit of the Department for Children, Schools and Families was broadened beyond its traditional role but such institutional reform attained its limits in June 2009, when the Department for Innovation, Universities, and Skills was merged into a bigger department under Lord Mandelson who became Secretary of State for Business, Innovation, and Skills.

From 2007 on, education policies were characterized by continuity with New Labour tenets, particularly on issues like parental choice in an education market. This also implied diversification in education providers with the creation of new schools (e.g. specialist schools, Academies) and the growing intervention of the private sector. Also central in Labour education policies, from 1997 to 2010, were interventionism in the name of excellence and focusing on the rights and responsibilities of education protagonists such as teachers, parents, and graduates. Testing was one of the cornerstones of reforms implemented since the 1980s but one significant change occurred in 2008. After Educational Testing Service Europe was in charge of test marking caused a “fiasco”, Children’s Secretary Ed Balls announced the end of testing at 14. The Guardian described such a decision as “historic”, but its impact must not be overstated as the government rejected calls for a global assessment of testing in education and the very idea of dropping tests altogether.

Education Funding

Before dealing with some New Labour policies in greater detail, we wish to turn to their sinews, that is funding. Although the 1997 manifesto promised to “increase the share of national income spent on education,” prudence was rather the norm in the early years as spending remained within the limits set by the Conservatives in the last years before 19972. From 2001 on, however, education budgets rose markedly with their proportion of GDP going from 4.9% in 1997/98 to 5.5% in 2003/043 and 5.9% in 2006, slightly below the OECD average.

Because of the current recession, such a trend could not go on unchecked. In September 2009, Gordon Brown pledged education spending would not be cut until 2011, but Children’s Secretary Ed Balls announced that efficiency savings worth £2 billion should be defined by then5.


One of the key policies was the constant focus on standards with test and exam results as expressed in league tables. Ofsted is also part and parcel of such a policy with its assessment of teaching standards. The Standards Task Force and Standards and Effectiveness Unit were set up in 1997 and a website wholly dedicated to standards shows how central this issue has remained. This has meant an avalanche of targets and some more were in fact added to the Public Service Agreements (PSAs) released in October 2007, for example, “narrow[ing] the gap in educational achievement between children from disadvantaged backgrounds and their peers” by 20117.

Private Sector Intervention

At first, New Labour was rhetorically cautious regarding the intervention of the private sector in education, but in June 2001 Education Secretary Estelle Morris asserted there were “‘no ideological bars’ to any solutions that could help schools.” Such a stance was reiterated by Gordon Brown in December 2007: “The role of the private sector in this area is expanding and […] will be a lot bigger in the next few years than it is now. In September 2008, Children’s Secretary Ed Balls urged community groups to create cooperative schools. We will however deal only with private companies in education as the voluntary sector is not yet a key player in this field. Private firms manage Local Authorities and schools which were considered to be failing. Their investment into schools created under New Labour governments has also given them some say in managing academies, specialist and trust schools, as they are free from Local Authority control. Special offers were advertised to attract private sponsors, like in September 2009, when it was decided they would no longer have to pay £2 million in advance, but rather establish their will and capacity to manage an Academy. Private companies have also been in charge of educational services like marking Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) and exams. Some have been given the right to award higher education degrees like BPP College in September 2007 or to offer work experience which could be part of A-levels or vocational diplomas12. Private firms have also been active in the development of vocational diplomas. Finally, the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) which was inaugurated in the early 1990s experienced dramatic growth with New Labour which based its school-building program (Building Schools for the Future) largely on PFI.